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两个东北人 在一三线城市的不同购房体验

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 智能家居标准统一之战:谷歌VS苹果 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

政策宽松窗口期背后:难解的楼市经济账

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

The 2016 ranking features a record 90 programmes, up from 70 in 2014.
But the temperature of 1998 is now being surpassed every four or five years, and 2014 was the first time that happened without a significant El Ni?o. Gavin A. Schmidt, head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in Manhattan, said the next strong El Ni?o would probably rout all temperature records.
与此同时,中国首富王健林等人士对中国国有企业在欧洲投资的事情表示担忧,声称它们缺乏国际管理标准。
Theresa May, the new British prime minister, earns 143,462 pounds ($186,119) a year. That includes her salary as a member of parliament, which is 74,962 pounds ($97,256) a year.
我判断摆烂不是看言论而是看球队动作的。所以,即使球队说他们没有摆烂,但是签了一大批落选的自由球员,同时报告明星球员伤病缠身,这时候你就知道,他们是在摆烂了。
我们首先得明白我们所有人都不知道这次选秀会怎么发展,毕竟大学联赛还在进行。但当所有的这些新鲜的血液都齐聚乐透区,这看起来当然美如画。
“I was quite sceptical initially in doing an online course but the communication and online interaction were perfect,” says one graduate from AGSM.

Beyoncé vs. Jennifer
除了作为微信核心的私聊和群卿功能之外,用户还可以通过“漂流瓶”功能寻找新的好友,具体方法是录制一段信息装在虚拟的“瓶子”里扔出去,等陌生人捡起来回复。“查看附近的人”功能与一些手机交友应用相似,用户通过它可以浏览附近其他用户的资料。另外还有一个名叫“朋友圈”的功能,用户通过它可以将相册公开分享给好友群,跟照片分享应用Instagram很像。
Song “Family”(Tan Jing)
As supporters kept streaming toward the Capitol building, one yelled out, “Today, a new Puerto Rico begins!” to the cheers of others, including those holding U.S. flags.
居民消费价格上涨2%;

Footnotes

  • “以房养老”试点4年承保不足百户 专家建议与居家养老相结合
  • Song “Friends Forever” (Yang Kun and Zhang Liangying)

这句话是唯一来自现实世界而不是网络的。一位政府官员在回答《焦点访谈》记者“天津市每年要偿还公路建设的贷款量有多大”的问题时,回答到“这事儿不能说太细”,网民们觉得这句话很有意思,于是流传甚广。
n. 争斗,战斗
Rank: 5
con共同,sci知道,ious多:什么都知道-清醒
在交易截止日到来前,看清楚他们会往哪个方向走这件事将会十分有趣。他们有很多靠得住的球员团结在布鲁克-洛佩兹身边。
“I think the best way to engage young people in the process is to win,” he says.

“史上最低价”?揭建材卖场3大忽悠术

References

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